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Arrayit Corporation (ARYC) leads and empowers the genetic, research, pharmaceutical, and diagnostic communities through the discovery, development and manufacture of proprietary life science technologies and consumables for disease prevention, treatment and cure.  - Powerful Science for Life™

Products - Microarray Printing - ChipMaker™ Technology

Arrayit-ChipMaker
Arrayit's original Micro Spotting Technology for use with existing three-dimensional motion control systems for microarray manufacturing.

Description of ChipMaker™ Technology
ChipMaker™ Micro Spotting Pins and Printheads represent Arrayit’s original patented printing technology, protected by United States Patent 6,101,946.  Still in wide use, ChipMaker™ technology is based on proprietary engineering and surface chemistry technologies, and the ChipMaker™ Micro Spotting Device has been specifically designed for a broad range of microarray manufacturing applications. The ChipMaker Micro Spotting Device is suitable for preparing solid surface microarrays of cDNAs, ESTs, oligonucleotides, peptides, proteins and other biological molecules used in fluorescence-based detection microarray assays.The ChipMaker™ Micro Spotting Device can be attached to virtually any high-end motion control system using the two threaded mounting holes on the back of the Printhead, and detection or printed microarrays is achieved using commercially available microarray instruments sold by PerkinElmer, Biorad, Axon, and others.  Contact Arrayit for details on any of these products.

For best results, samples should be purified prior to printing.  Arrayit’s PCR Purification Kits work well to purify double-stranded cDNA molecules. Other purification kits leave trace contaminants that may clog ChipMaker™ Pins and cause unwanted variation in signal intensity. Samples should be suspended in Arrayit Printing Buffer prior to manufacture. Arrayit’s Super and Mirror Microarray Substrates provide superior printing surfaces.

Arrayit assures the performance of all ChipMaker™ products. The finest scientific and engineering research went into the development of these products. Rigorous quality control monitoring of each part guarantees that the Pins and Printheads exceed the highest industry standards.

6101946
Fig. 1.  ChipMaker™ Pin.  Shown is a composite image of Arrayit’s ChipMaker™ Pin from 1997, including the flat, horizontally level tip and the exterior uptake channel that holds a predetermined volume of sample.  These are two key aspects of Arrayit’s patented technology.

How to care for your ChipMaker Micro Spotting Device:
The ChipMaker™ Micro Spotting Device is designed and engineered for optimal wear and durability, while providing the highest printing performance in the picoliter and low nanoliter range. The Pins and Printhead have been tested out to 1 million printing cycles with no loss of printing precision or performance. Maximum durability requires proper use. Improper use of these precision products can lead to loss of performance or permanent damage. To avoid damaging your ChipMaker™ Micro Spotting Device, please follow these guidelines:

  1. The Printhead should be mounted on the motion control system prior to inserting the Pins into the Printhead. All hardware, motion control movements, calibration and software should be completely checked prior to inserting the Pins into the Printhead.  Once the Pins are carefully inserted into the printhead, Pins can be damaged by inappropriate use. Pins must never be dropped, slammed or dragged across solid surfaces.  Any contact of this type can permanently damage the tips of Micro Spotting Pins. Pay particular attention to the Z-axis speed settings and use the recommended settings in this protocol.
  2. If a loss of printing quality is observed, the spotting pins should be cleaned by carefully using the Pin and Printhead Cleaning Kit.  Never subject ChipMaker parts to extremes in temperature or pH and avoid the use of strong solvents as these may damage the pin surface chemistry.  Never dry Pins using canned air because the propellants ruin the surface tension properties needed for reliable printing.
  3. Microarray experiments depend upon the quality of the samples. Samples prepared by standard purification procedures can result in pin clogging and a loss of microarray quality. For best results with PCR products, use Arrayit’s PCR Purification Kits.  Increased performance can also be obtained by using Arrayit’s Printing Buffers and Super Microarray Substrates.
  4. WARNING: Pressurized air canisters and other sources of pressurized air contain organic propellants that ruin the surface tension properties of pin tips.  Do not use pressurized air canisters to dry your pins!! Use the Microarray Air Jet for this purpose.

Martinsky-patent
Fig. 2. Printing mechanism.  Arrayit's unique printing technology (U.S. patent 6,101,946) enables high-speed manufacture of microarrays on glass, gels, membranes and other microarray surfaces. The pins have flat tips and defined uptake channels, which allows a thin (25 µm) layer of sample to form at the end of the pin, and printing to proceed by gentle surface contact. Printing occurs as a simple 3-step "ink-stamping" process as follows: (left) downstroke, (center) contact, and (right) upstroke.  Pin tips and channels are available in a wide assortment of dimensions, allowing users to specify spot diameter and the number of spots per loading.

TeleChem-patent
Fig. 3. Pin tip uptake channels.  Shown are the standard 0.2 µl uptake channel (left) and the 0.6 µl “bubble” uptake channel (right).  Both types of uptake channels fill completely with sample, and hold a predetermined volume.

Product Specifications

  • Printheads hold 32 or 48 pins
  • Feature size of 100-300 µm depending on pin tip
  • Printing precision of ±15 µm
  • Speed of up to 48 features/sec
  • 4.5 mm pin offsets printing 18 x 36 mm microarrays with 32 pins
  • Pin loading volumes of 0.20 µl (standard) and 0.6 µl (bubble)
  • Delivery volumes of 0.7-5.2 nl depending on pin tip and uptake channel
  • Print from either 96- or 384-well plates
  • High-throughput of 50 microarrays of 10,000 features in <8 hrs
  • 25,000 features in a 18 x 36 mm area
  • Attach to any high quality motion control system

Motion control parameters*:

  • Non-surface contact: X, Y, Z motions
  • Surface contact: Z only!
  • Sample loading time: 2-3 sec
  • Pin wash time: 3 cycles at 1-3 sec/cycle
  • Z axis surface clearance: 1.0-1.5 mm
  • Z axis acceleration: 30 cm/sec2
  • Z axis velocity: 10-20 mm/sec
  • Z axis travel (surface = 0): +0.5-1.0 mm
  • Surface dwell time: 0.05 sec
  • Cycle time (32 pins): 32 features/sec

*All motion control parameters are suggestions only. Each of these parameters should be empirically tested with a single spotting pin to test printing quality and pin durability. Parameters can be modified to maximize printing quality and speed in a manner compatible with your motion control system. Changes in Z axis surface clearance, acceleration, velocity and travel should be made with extreme care!

microarray-ChipMaker
Fig. 4.  ChipMaker™ mounting ports.  Threaded mounting ports on the back side of each ChipMaker™ Printhead allow easy attachment to a motion control system.

Troubleshooting Tips

Pin tip blunting

  • Incorrect motion control parameters. Arrayit Pins do not require a tapping force for printing.  Please do not tap our pins during the printing process.

Martinsky-6101946
Fig. 5.  ChipMaker™ microarray data. Fluorescent oligonucleotides were printed in duplicate onto glass substrates at 150 µm spacing using ChipMaker4 pins, scanned with a ScanArray 3000 (PerkinElmer) at 72% PMT and 60% laser in the Cy3 (top) and Cy5 (bottom) channels. Duplicate spots (rectangle) correspond to 0.6 fluors/µm2.  Data are coded to a rainbow palette.

Technical Assistance
Please contact us if you have any comments, suggestions, or if you need technical assistance. By electronic mail: arrayit@arrayit.com (under the subject heading please type ArrayIt® technical assistance). By telephone: (408) 744-1331, Monday–Friday PST 9:00am - 4:30pm. Please remember that we want to hear about your successes!

Notes on Microarrayer Wash/Dry Stations

Three keys to the proper function of wash/dry stations are:

  • continuous source of filtered dH2O
  • sufficient vacuum strenght to dry the pin tips
  • proper motion control programming

Wash water should be continually replenished during a print run to avoid build up of used samples. Accumulating used sample can cause serious cross-contamination of printed arrays.  A vacuum dry station relies on the passage of air across the pins tips to achieve drying.  Multiple wash/dry cycles are necessary to ensure the complete cleaning of the pin tip and the removal of the previous sample.  The most frequent cause of poor pin cleaning is excessive vacuum drying during the first wash/dry cycle.  The first two or three cycles should employ short (0.5 sec) wash and dry steps, followed by a longer (5-10 sec) dry step once the previous sample has been washed away completely. The use of a long dry step during the first wash/dry cycle can cause the previous sample to dry inside the pin channel, leading to poor printing and cross-contamination of successive samples. Pins that are cleaned properly should produce less than 0.001% cross-contamination from one printing cycle to the next.

Warranty
ArrayIt® Brand products have been scientifically developed and sold for research purposes only. Extreme care and exact attention should be practiced in the use of the materials described herein. All ArrayIt® Brand products are subject to extensive quality control and are guaranteed to perform as described when used properly. Any problems with ArrayIt® Brand products should be reported to Arrayit immediately. Arrayit's liability is limited to the replacement of the product, or a full refund. Any misuse of this product is the full responsibility of the user, and Arrayit makes no warranty or guarantee under such circumstances. These materials are not to be administered to humans under any circumstances.

Licensing
Arrayit’s 946, Stealth and ChipMaker Microarray Spotting Technology is sold license- and royalty-free for research purposes only. The use of our patented technology (US 6,101,946) for diagnostic applications requires a Licensing Agreement. For License inquiries, please contact arrayit@arrayit.com.

Technology Licensing
Arrayit Corporation
Phone: (408) 744-1331
FAX: (408) 744-1711
E-mail arrayit@arrayit.com

Table 1. ChipMaker™ Micro Spotting Pin Matrix.

Catalog Number

Spot Diam. (µm)

Uptake Vol. (µl)

Delivery Volume (nl)

Min. Spot Spacing (µm)

Max. Subgrid per Pin

Density (Spots/ cm2)

Max # of Spots in 18 x 72 mm

Price (U.S. dollars)*

CMP3

100

0.25

0.7

120

36 x 36

5,184

82,944

$496

CMP3B

110

0.60

0.9

135

32 x 32

4,096

65,536

$567

CMP4

135

0.25

1.1

160

28 x 28

3,136

50,176

$437

CMP4B

145

0.60

1.4

175

25 x 25

2,500

40,000

$496

CMP5

165

0.25

1.5

200

22 x 22

1,936

30,967

$437

CMP5B

185

0.60

2.0

215

20 x 20

1,600

25,600

$496

CMP6

200

0.25

1.8

240

18 x 18

1,296

20,736

$437

CMP6B

220

0.60

2.4

255

17 x 17

1,156

18,496

$496

CMP7

235

0.27

2.3

260

17 x 17

1,156

18,496

$437

CMP7B

255

0.60

3.1

280

16 x 16

1,024

16,384

$496

CMP8

265

0.25

2.8

275

14 x 14

784

12,544

$437

CMP8B

295

0.60

3.7

350

12 x 12

576

9,216

$496

CMP9

300

0.25

3.3

360

12 x 12

576

9,216

$437

CMP9B

330

0.60

4.4

400

11 x 11

484

7,744

$496

CMP10

335

0.25

3.9

400

11 x 11

484

7,744

$437

CMP10B

365

0.60

5.2

440

10 x 10

400

6,400

$496

CMP11

365

0.25

4.4

440

10 x 10

400

6,400

$437

CMP11B

400

0.60

5.9

480

9 x 9

324

5,184

$496

CMP12

400

0.25

5.1

480

9 x 9

324

5,184

$437

CMP12B

440

0.60

6.8

530

8 x 8

256

4,096

$496

CMP13

435

0.25

5.8

520

8 x 8

256

4,096

$437

CMP13B

475

0.60

7.7

570

7 x 7

196

3,136

$496

CMP14

465

0.25

6.5

560

8 x 8

256

4,096

$437

CMP14B

510

0.60

8.7

610

7 x 7

196

3,136

$496

CMP15

500

0.25

7.0

600

7 x 7

196

3,136

$437

CMP15B

550

0.60

9.4

660

6 x 6

144

2,304

$496

Nominal ChipMaker™ Pin dimensions are as follows: length = 1 3/4 inches (44.45 mm), diameter = 1/16 inches (1.59 mm), and weight = 0.8 grams. ChipMaker™ Pins are named using a prefix, number and suffix (if any) as follows: CMP3B, CMP (ChipMaker Micro Spotting Pin); 3 = Pin tip width of 3 thousands of an inch (0.003”) which equals 75 µm, and B (Bubble) channel with a 0.6 µl uptake volume.  All 16 ChipMaker™ Pins use the same nomenclature and all are compatible with the three ChipMaker™ Printheads (see Table 2). Values are averages obtained using 500 fmol/µl Cy3-labeled oligonucleotide in 1X MSS printing solution on SuperAldehyde Substrates at 16°C and 50% relative humidity. Values can vary depending on the printing solution, substrate, temperature, humidity, motion control system, printing parameters, sample viscosity, and other variables.  All pins have been durability tested out to 1,000,000 printing cycles at a Z-axis velocity of 10 mm/sec, with no detectable deformation of the flat tips. International pricing may vary by as much as 30% due to import duties, stocking fees and technical support.

Table 2. ChipMaker Printhead Matrix.

Cat. ID

Max. Number of Micro Spotting Pins

Center-to-Center Spacing (mm)

Max.  footprint (mm)

Number of Sample Loadings per 384-Well Plate

Printhead Dimensions (L X W X H inches)

Printing Time for 50 Chips of 10,000 Elements (hours)

Price (U.S. dollars)*

CPH2

32

4.5

18 x 36

12

2.5 x 1.25 x 1.0

10.4

$1,640

CPH3

48

4.5

18 x 54

8

3.25 x 1.25 x 1.0

6.9

$2,022

To order call 408-744-1331, fax 408-744-1711, Email arrayit@arrayit.com, or click on the purchase buttons above to proceed directly to the purchase page.

*International pricing may vary as much as 30% (or more depending on country) due to import duties, stocking fees and technical support.

*Plus shipping and handling.

Licensing
Arrayit microarray printing technology (U.S. 6,101,946) is sold license-free for research use only.
All other uses of our patented technology including commercial testing and diagnostics require a license. For license inquiries, please contact our Licensing Department at arrayit@arrayit.com.

 

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