Diagnostics - Diagnostic Technology
Arrayit VIP (Variation Identification Platform) technology allows the detection of sequence variants for many patient samples at once. VIP diagnostics is a universal microarray analysis platform for nucleic acid-based genetic screening, testing, diagnostics, genotyping and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Arrayit’s VIP technology allows hybridization-based analysis of SNPs, mutations, deletions, insertion-deletion mutations (indels), and other minor sequence variations from any organism of interest. VIP technology can also be used to detect bacterial and viral sequences required for the diagnosis of infectious diseases caused by agents such as mycobacterium tuberculosis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), bacillus anthracis, and other pathogens. Arrayit offers the only technology platform amenable to cost-effective screening of the human population.
In one embodiment of the technology, specific genetic loci are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), printed into microarrays, and hybridized with fluorescent synthetic oligonucleotides. The hybridized microarrays are then scanned for fluorescence emission to derive genotyping information (Figure 1). Normal, carrier and disease genotypes are distinguished easily by reading green, yellow and red signals in composite microarray images (Figure 2). It is altered hybridization efficiency by on genotype that leads to different fluorescent intensities in scanned microarray images (Figure 3). Two-color strategies can be used to improve the readability and precision of the assays (Figure 4). If performed correctly, the Arrayit multi-patient genotyping process is 100% accurate. A microarray containing 25,000 individual printed features showcases the extraordinary quality of Arrayit microarrays (Figure 5). Platinum, Gold, Silver and Bronze Cleanroom Platforms provide integrated cleanroom environments designed to meet the most exacting clinical applications (Figure 6).
The Arrayit approach is clear departure from traditional microarray assays that use oligonucleotides to analyze one or two patient samples at a time. Instead of the patient samples floating in solution across the microarray substrate, amplified material from each patient is attached at a distinct location on the surface, allowing massively parallel analysis of multiple patients. The current printing capacity of 100,000 spots per microarray enables screening of up to 100,000 patients in a single test. Arrayit has the only platform that allows economical screening of millions of patients per year. This revolutionary "samples down" approach allows all of the costs of the test (hardware, software, labor, kits, reagents) to be amortized across many patients. Arrayit technology can be scaled down to allow testing of tens or hundreds of samples per microarray, making it ideal for hospitals and public health that require testing on a daily basis. Arrayit technology provides accurate genotyping information within 24-48 hours of receiving a patient sample. Arrayit diagnostics information integrates into the larger healthcare picture, enabling physicians and other health care professionals to make important clinical decisions (Figure 7). Pharmaceutical companies, government laboratories, life science companies, academic institutions, biotechnology companies and hospitals currently utilize Arrayit products.
Figure 1. Variation Identification Platform methods. Arrayit methods provide universal microarray-based platforms for genetic screening. In one embodiment, specific chromosomal loci are amplified by use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), printed into microarrays, and hybridized with fluorescent oligonucleotides. The fluorescent microarrays are then scanned for fluorescence emission and signal strengths provide genotyping information.
Figure 2. Arrayit VIP technology allows detection of single nucleotide changes. Amplified DNA from patients with normal (G/G), carrier (G/A) and disease (A/A) genotypes are hybridized with complementary fluorescent oligonucleotides labeled with a green tag to detect the normal sequence and a red tag to detect the disease sequence. Genotypes for the normal, carrier and disease patients are easily identified by reading green, yellow and red signals in composite microarray images.
Figure 3. Arrayit VIP technology utilizes the fact that DNA from patients with different genotypes (normal, carrier and disease) hybridize with different efficiencies. Sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and galactosemia disease loci from different patients were amplified by PCR using specific primers, printed into a microarray and hybridized with synthetic oligonucleotides bearing fluorescent labels. The different genotypes are distinguished by detecting differences in fluorescent signals in scanned microarray images.
Figure 4. Arrayit VIP technology can utilize two-color fluorescence to expedite the genotyping process. Fluorescent oligonucleotides with cyanine 5 labels (red channel) and cyanine 3 labels (green channel) were co-hybridized to a microarray, scanned for cyanine 3 and cyanine 5 emission, and the fluorescent images were superimposed to produce a composite (bottom panel). The 3 different genotypes are distinguished easily by scoring the red, yellow and green colors.
Figure 5. Arrayit VIP technology enables the manufacture of microarrays containing 100,000 elements, allowing the simultaneous genotyping of up to 100,000 different patients in a single test.
Figure 6. Arrayit cleanrooms provide superior work environments for Platinum, Gold, Silver and Bronze Cleanroom VIP Platforms. Arrayit designs, builds and installs custom cleanroom facilities to meet the specific facilities and applications requirements of each customer.
Figure 7. Arrayit VIP technology integrates seamlessly into healthcare.
Figure 8. Arrayit VIP customers include healthcare professionals in pharmaceutical companies, government laboratories, life science companies, academic institutions, biotechnology companies and hospitals.
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